After a rather long break, we are returning to Kronstadt (Kotlin Island).
This time, we are going there by ferry from Lomonosov (Oranienbaum). The ferry operates several times a day and transports both people and cars. The trip takes about 20-25 minutes.
The ferry also operates in winter (an icebreaker clears the path, however the ice sometimes re-freezes and the ferry gets stuck).
Approaching the island.
As you have probably heard, there is a dam leading to Kronstadt, meant, on one hand, to protect Saint Petersburg from floods, and on the other - as part of the Saint Petersburg Ring Road (KAD).
Its north-east part (to Gorskaya station/Lisiy Nos) has long been functional, and now has a proper road running along it, however, it is impossible to drive over its southern part (to Lomonosov) because of the gap around Morskoy Canal (the Naval Canal), which is used for the passage of vessels.
This is how they pass through the canal.
To enable the road transport to pass through the southern part of the dam, there is a tunnel being dug under Morskoy Canal. The construction started in 1988 (a 1975 project).
The length of the future tunnel (to be more precise, 2 tunnels - one for each direction of traffic) is about two kilometres. Each tunnel is designed to have three lanes.
Arrived at Zimnyaya Pristan' (Srednyaya Gavan').
Obvodny Canal (a channel of a rectangular shape, with one side open into the bay).
Another name for Obvodny Canal is "Provodnoy", which means "passage". The meaning, apparently, comes from the passage of cargo barges. This is evidenced by the remains of winches protruding from the windows of abandoned buildings along the shore.
Came into existence in 1754 as a place for storage of anchors and anchor chains.
In 1918 it was renamed into Zhertv Revolyutsii Square (after the victims of Revolution); the old name was subsequently restored.
In the foreground - the Eternal Flame (architect - L.K Larionova) above the mass grave of minelayer seamen, who participated in the Kronstadt rebellion of 19th of July 1906 and were shot by the sentence of court martial.
In 1917-1919 more seamen who died in the struggle to establish Soviet power were buried here, as well as those who died in the Kronstadt rebellion of 1921.
The flame was lit on the 6th of November 1980 from the Eternal Flame at the Field of Mars in Leningrad.
In the background - the Naval Cathedral undergoing restoration.
The inscriptions read as follows:
"1905-1906 - Fearlessly you fell in a struggle for freedom and with your feat you have illuminated the path for the October"
"1917 - Under the red flag in the fire of revolutions you have assured the glory of Kronstadt for the centuries to come"
"1919 - 1921. Slain in the battles for the people's happiness, they have deserved the gratitude of the living"
On the fourth side are listed the names of the dead.
Close by - monument to Admiral S.O. Makarov.
Stepan Osipovich Makarov died in the Russo-Japanese War on 13th of April 1904, on the battleship Petropavlovsk.
The monument was erected in 1913.
Designed by L.V. Sherwood.
Naval Cathedral at the Anchor Square.
Built in 1902-1913, designed by architect V.A. Kosyakov.
During the soviet time, was used as a cinema, for which purpose a suspended ceiling was installed. Now, as I understand, the ceiling is being dismantled and the interior converted back into a church.
Generally speaking, the question of "what to do with churches" is not a simple one. On one hand, to leave such a number of temples in their original form is a straightforward and, unfortunately, very effective (beauty, scale - and the corresponding emotional influence) religious propaganda. On the other hand, any significant alterations (like in this case) - lower the historical and architectural value of the building.
A more or less of a compromise would be, in my view, to use such buildings (those of historical value, of course) as libraries or museums. An example - Arctic and Antarctic Museum on Ulitsa Marata (Marata Street). The main problem probably is the fact that space inside a church is difficult to use rationally without a major reconstruction. This is particularly true of Russian churches. In the West a lot of churches are built in a form of a rectangular space, stretched out lengthwise and convenient to use for practical purposes.
A good topic for an architecture contest.
The facade facing the square is currently under restoration, so the photos were only taken from the back and the sides.
Fencing around the cathedral.
Close by - Makarovskiy bridge across a ravine.
Was opened at the same time as the monument to Admiral Makarov.
In 1970-1972 was reconstructed (riveted joints were replaced by welded ones).
The trees around Ovrazhniy (Ravine) park.
The ravine is officially known as "ravine-ditch of Petrovskiy dock". It terminates with a brick and stone lined wall (as shown in the photo).
Initially (during the reign of Peter I) it was planned to turn the ravine into an internal bay, but the idea was rejected, and the ravine was used instead to drain water from Petrovskiy dock. The ravine is situated below the level of the dock, so the water poured in naturally; pumping it back out was a tedious process, powered by windmills.
In conclusion, a couple of buildings on the other side of the ravine.
One of them - mid-late 1920s.
The other - 1970s - 1980s.
(The ravine runs along the path on the right).
Also, I would like to draw your attention to the new album "A Day in the Life of the City - January 2008. Kronshatd, Bychye Pole /Bull Field/ airfield"